One final area that’s worth mentioning when discussing brewing water chemistry is the mash pH. We won’t delve too deeply into this subject, but basically it’s important to keep your mash pH within the 5.3–5.6 range. This is the ideal environment for the enzymes to do their thing, ensuring higher efficiency. You’ll need a pH tester to be sure of your mash pH.
The pH of your mash is determined not only by the brewing water profile, but also the grains that go into your mash, as well as any other additions. Darker malts will increase the acidity of your mash, and should typically be balanced out with alkalis such as Sodium Bicarbonate.
Generally however, and especially in more pale beers, you’ll find you’re more likely to need to lower the mash pH rather than raise it. This can be done by adding lactic or phosphoric acid until you fall into the correct range.
While there’s a lot more to learn regarding brewing water chemistry and treatments, this basic guide will set you on the right path. As with all things, it’s best to master the basics first before getting bogged down in the really complicated science.